Welt im Film 12/1945 03.08.1945
01 parade in London Canadian troops parading Canada in London. The High Commissioner is the parade. Navy, infantry, air force. Women force. March to Westminster. The English King and Queen and Princess Elizabeth in uniform go to Thanksgiving.
(? m) 02. Fields flooded in the flooded Holland and houses. Pumping equipment on the Dutch coast to be repaired and start to work again.
(? m) 03. The allies in Berlin final battle in Berlin. Russian tanks. Street fighting. Debris. Charging soldiers. The Brandenburg Gate. German prisoners. Soviet troops penetrate into the Reich Chancellery. Unter den Linden: Pictures of Stalin and Lenin. Russian police officer controls the traffic. U.S. soldiers in barracks. The British invasion. Armored car. People on the side of the road. Marching Scots. The victory column. Rubble and debris. Rubble women. Woman collects dump. Swastika emblem. The Reichstag and the Reich Chancellery. British and Russian officers visit the Reich Chancellery. Hitler's work room.
(m) 04. New tasks for the Hungarian Marine clearing of the Danube. Destroyed bridge is removed from fairway. Divers.
(? m) 5th America of latest fighter-bomber "Tiger cat" at start of aircraft carriers. Flight demonstration and aerobatics. Landing on aircraft carriers.
(? m) 06 France will help Algeria grain is harvested and weighed in sacks. Wüster ground, irrigation systems dried up. Swarms of locusts. Sheep To find no food, agriculture machines stand still. Starving people. In the port, a crane loads bags of French wheat from the ship.
(? m) 07 camera Rundschau Stuttgart long shot of the city. Men with shovels for debris clearance. The station, the gasworks, Ford, Zeiss-Ikon. Workers of the Zeiss Ikon works in repair and composition of cameras. Vegetable market. Potatoes are transported by tram. Bags carried in tram. Tram runs through debris. Sale of Leek at booth.
(? m) 8th Japanese suicide pilots in the use of U.S. aircraft against the Japanese fleet. Aircraft will be destroyed on the ground by bombs. Crash landing of aircraft on aircraft carriers. Explosion. Plane crashes into the water. Japanese suicide pilots are shot at. Shooting down of aircraft. Attacking low-flying aircraft. Aircraft carrier Saratoga burns. Troops in the deletion. Sky full of floor clouds. Crashing planes. Plane crashes on aircraft carriers. Fire. Delete. Soldiers to swim in the water.
Persons in the Film
Translated by Microsoft Translator
Welt im Film 12/1945
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75 Years of Berlin’s „Trümmerfrauen“ (June 1, 1945)
When World War II was over Berlin lay in ashes. A high percentage of living space and production facilities had been completely or partially destroyed by the more than 350 air strikes since 1940. Out of the originally 4.3 million residents just over half remain in the city, with barely any men left that are fit for work. Shortly after Berlin’s occupation the Allied Forces oblige all healthy women between the age of 15 and 50 to work. Several thousand women report to remove the giant towers of debris—not because they are eager to rebuild their city but because they have no other choice. In exchange for their hard physical labour they receive better ration cards—meaning larger rations—as well as a very small hourly wage. It’s the only way to make ends meet for them and their families.
Clearing the rubble comes with a lot of stigma. During the war it was concentration camp prisoners and prisoners of war who were forced to clear the debris, and after Germany capitulated German soldiers and members of the NSDAP were deployed for penal labour. To counteract the negative image and to win over more unemployed persons a media campaign is launched to create a positive image of the „Trümmerfrauen“ („rubble women“) and to also disseminate the term, which was probably born on the street. The photos used in this campaign are often staged.
With the decade coming to a close more and more skilled personnel and machines assume the debris removal and female „unskilled workers“ are no longer needed. In the GDR they are hailed as role models for socialist women but in West Berlin and the FRG they are quickly forgotten. It’s the feminist movement that would eventually raise the issue, which then also becomes a subject of pension policy. As a result all women, who led a hard life during the post war era are hailed as „Trümmerfrauen“ and given mythic status. But in reality the Trümmerfrauen were just a phenomenon in Berlin and the Soviet occupation zone, and even there they only accounted for a small portion of working women.