1948 - Chronicle of a year. A look back at the events and highlights of the past 12 months, put together for Germany a year sequence of World In the film 1 friendship train for Germany in United States - WIF 137 2. arrival of the friendship train in Germany - WIF 148 3. school meals - WIF 103 4. Gandhi +-WIF 141 5 burial of Gandhi - WIF 143 6 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz - WIF 143 7 coup d ' état in Prague - WIF 147 8 Western European Friendship Pact - WIF 149 9 wedding Michael of Romania and Anna Bourbon Parma - WIF 149 10. Marshall plan - WIF 140 signed by Truman - WIF 180 boxcars for Germany - WIF 182 11 elections in Italy - WIF 153 talks Prime Minister de Gasperi - WIF 153 12th century celebration in St. Paul's Church - WIF 157 13 war in Israel - WIF 159 conveys Count Bernadotte - WIF 158 14 currency reform - WIF 161 15. After the currency reform - WIF 162 16. Berlin blockade - blocked railway lines - WIF 181 air-bridge - WIF 164 Ernst Reuter speaks - 172 17 Moscow accused Tito of WIF - WIF 163 18 Olympics London - WIF 167, 168, 169 19 Parliamentary Council in Bonn - WIF 172 20 700 years Cologne Cathedral - WIF 169 21 rising export - WIF 174 22 fast English Jet - WIF 184 23 throne Exchange in Holland - WIF 175 24 UN Security Council convenes in Paris - WIF 176 25. Yes prices - 172 26 WIF everyone program - WIF 183 27 London: Commonwealth Conference - WIF 179 of 28 Franz Lehár +-WIF 179 29 presidential elections in the United States - WIF 180 30 war in China - Tschiangkaischek - WIF 86 31 Berlin - blockade: power lock - WIF 165 32. elections to the Berlin City Parliament - WIF 185 33. An heir to the throne of England Fireworks - cheers WIF 185 new year 1949-
01 new year – newsreel the year 1948 began in a sign of increasing American aid to Europe. Also Germany contributed to these deliveries of vital goods. So, drove a train through America and gathered food for Germany. The "friendship train" finally arrived with his cargo in the Rhineland. Increasing aid for the German youth. The school was further expanded as shown in this shot from the British zone.
Murdered Gandhi - one of the most tragic messages of the year. The great Indian statesman and supporter of peace is buried under huge sympathy. Never seen such devotion in India, such - mourning. Mahatma Gandhi has entered immortality.
After guiding the Olympic flame lights up again. The V. Winter Olympics be held in St. Moritz. 28 Nations taking part with 900 athletes. In all branches of winter sports, there are hard, exciting fights. The Frenchman Henry Oreiller is the most successful participant in the games with two gold medals and a bronze. The uncrowned Queen of the games: the Canadian Barbara Ann Scott, winner of the gold medal in figure skating.
Coup d'etat in Prague. A Communist-oriented minority takes over State power. President Benesch abdicated. Here the new Prime Minister Gottwald and former Foreign Minister Masaryk, who himself later took his own life.
In Brussels, a west European assistance and Friendship Pact for a period of 50 years was closed. France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Holland, Great Britain sign it.
King Michael of Romania abdicated. In Athens, he married Princess Anna of Bourbon-Parma - a romantic deposit in the dynamics of international politics.
Secretary of State Marshall designed the generous aid program for Europe, which bears his name. President Truman signed the Marshall plan. Supplies for the Western zones of Germany enabled the increase in performance of West German industry, which already reached a level of 75% of the production of the year 1936.
The elections in Italy were a touchstone for the political development in Europe. Despite large Communist propaganda, they took a convincing victory of the anti-communist parties. Prime Minister de Gasperi and his coalition Government continues to provide a clear course of Italian politics against terror and dictatorship.
The historic Paulskirche at Frankfurt am Main was the center of the ceremony to commemorate the first German National Assembly. A week-long stood the city with many celebrations and meetings in the center of attention. The events culminated in the speech of the poet Fritz von Unruh, who was awarded the Goethe prize of the year 1948, returned from emigration. The days of Frankfurt were devoted to the spiritual renewal of a peace and freedom party Deutschldands.
War in the Holy land. At the end of the British mandate, the British troops in Palestine left. Dr. Waizmann is President of the independent Jewish State of Israel.
And the other side: King Abdullah of Transjordan, whose Truppen invaded with other Arab and Egyptian armies in Israel. There was heavy fighting, in which the Jews successfully defended their territory. The United Nations appointed Count Bernadotte as the mediator in the conflict in Palestine. In the middle of his plans to the pacification of Palestine, Count Bernadotte was murdered.
The currency reform is here! An event of crucial importance and profound effect. You exchange the old money - the head money brings the start in the new era of the Deutsche mark. The first impact: There are to many things to buy, the costs incurred by the shops fill up. Overnight, the fruits and vegetables is ready like with magic. The money has again done its value which is the first step towards establishing a healthy economic base in the three Western zones. And Lo and behold: the customer service also reviving.
As a result of the currency reform, the Soviets impose the blockade of Berlin. Disable all feeds to water and land. Over 2 million people are exposed to all hardships of blockade. The Berlin crisis begins.
But the Western powers respond with immediate countermeasures. The airlift was the biggest air operation ever conducted. And Berlin's population remains steadfast. In impressive rallies, a call comes repeatedly after freedom. The air bridge will be reinforced continuously. Around 100,000 flights are performed until the end of the year, a gigantic performance.
Marshal Tito, the of Yugoslavia of head of State, is accused by Moscow of abandoning the General line of Soviet policy. The first crack in the Red block behind the iron curtain.
At the summer Olympics in London. After the ceremonial opening by King George begins the contest of 58 Nations. In fourteen days, passing the colourful kaleidoscope of all sports at the eye of the Viewer. The superior appearance of the games: the Dutch woman Blankers-Koen, the four gold medals won. And here the most murderous race, the marathon. And the winner: Cabrera, Argentina. The overall result, America won against Sweden and Hungary.
The Parliamentary Council was convened in Bonn. 65 representatives of the German States here set the provisional Constitution, which should serve as a basis for a future German State entity.
700 years of Cologne Cathedral. After repairing the war damage, the venerable building takes representatives of Christianity from all five continents to a big party. In the pageant: the Messenger of the Pope, Cardinal Legate Clemente Micara. The 700th anniversary of the Cologne Cathedral became a feast day of the Christian world.
Rising export indicates the economic recovery of Germany. The old concept of quality "Made in Germany" which recaptured the world markets. The pencil about products of the steel industry until the fur go back German goods abroad. The increasing export brings valuable foreign exchange; the Forex back raw materials and foods are purchased for - a fertile cycle of goods and money.
Faster, higher, farther. New records in the aviation hunt themselves. This English jet aircraft reached over 1,000 kilometre-hour speed.
Coal is the key to the reconstruction. Increasing coal mining in the Ruhr is therefore the goal of boosting - advertising new workers up to raise the standard of living for the miner. Also the occupation powers take strongest share in these efforts. Here General Clay and General Robertson on his inspection of mines and mills. Since the autumn, the daily promotion of Ruhr coal has exceeded 300,000 tons All the time. The ascending line stops.
Change of the throne in Holland. Queen Wilhelmina abdicated in favour of her daughter Juliana. The solemn swearing-in ceremony of the new Queen found Instead of in the new Church in Amsterdam.
The United Nations, the Forum of the world met in Paris. The current international problems were addressed in numerous meetings. Also in this Council of the peoples of Soviet Russia All the time, decisions and measures to prevent Here the Soviet representatives in Wischinsky and the Ukrainian Parliament against a proposal for resolving the Berlin crisis vote - it is the 28 "no" Soviet Russia since the 3-year anniversary of the United Nations.
Yes - the rates! You stiff...
The new currency brought the big turnaround. Of empty warehouses full of shops. It was purchased. The result: rising prices! This led to many demonstrations of the working population and the housewives. A first official measure to combat the Überpreise and support the currency was the start of everyone programme. Cheap goods for all, so gradually again to adjust prices and wages.
The leading statesmen of the British family of Nations met in London. There are the representatives of 500 million people, who are joined together in the British Commonwealth to a bunch of free Nations. They discussed possibilities of economic cooperation and joint reconstruction.
A great out of the realm of music passed away: Franz Lehár.
Presidential elections in America. The two candidates are (for the Democratic Party) President Truman and (for the Republicans) of the Governor of the State of New York. Thomas E. Dewey, who was regarded as the favorite. After a moving campaign President Truman emerged surprisingly victorious from the elections. He is elected for another 4 years President of America - this time by the people.
In China is the Government Tschiang Kai Schek in severe distress. Tschiang Kai shek armies suffered communist armies moving to major area losses against friends in the North of the country. The war in China is approaching his decision.
The hardships of winter threaten Berlin: power cuts, traffic restrictions, lack of fuel and other consequences of the Soviet blockade. But Berlin remains firmly - and the Berlin were undeterred to the elections to the city Parliament, which could only take place in the Western sectors. The Soviets had banned the choice for the eastern sector. Over 86% gave their voice--an overwhelming commitment of Berlin to the freedom.
A son to Princess Elizabeth. The announcement is beaten by the birth of the heir of the throne in London. In the solemn bells of Westminster Abbey, the gun salute of the batteries from the Tower, the name Philip mingle or Elisabeth carry many babies who were born on that day. Here's one of them... A friendly end of 1948.
New Year Edition
The year of 1948 began with an increase of American help for Europe. Germany also was included in these shipments of vital goods. A train travelled through the whole of America and collected food stuffs for Germany. The "Friendshiptrain" finally arrived with its freight in the Rhine district. Increased help was also given to the German children. The school feedings were extended, as is shown in this scene from the British Zone.
Ghandi was killed ... one of the most tragic happenings of the year. This great Indian statesman and apostle of peace is buried with enormous participation of the population. Never has there been such devotion, such grief in India.
After a 12 year recess the Olympic Flame is rekindled. St. Moritz was the scene of the 5th Olympic winter games. 28 nations participated with 900 competitors. There were thrilling competitions in all kinds of sports. The Frenchman Henry Oreiller was the most successfull contestant winning 2 gold medals and one bronce medal. Canadian Barbara Ann Scott, winner of the gold medal for ice scating, was the queen of the winter games.
Political upheaval in Prague. A Communist minority took over state government. President Benesch resigned. This is the new prime minister Gottwald and former Foreign minister Masaryk, who committed suicide.
At Brussels a West-European Assistance and Friendship Treaty was concluded for a term of 50 years. France, Belgium, Luxemburg, Holland and Great Britain signed.
King Michael of Rumania resigned. He married Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma at Athens - a romantic interlude in the serious pattern of international politics.
Secretary of State Marshall devised the great Relief Programme for Europe which bears his name. Truman signed the Marshall-Plan. The shipments for the Western Zones of Germany made possible an increase of output of the Western German industries which have now reached a capacity of 75% of the production of 1936.
The Italian elections were a test case for the political development in Europe. In spite of intensive Communist propaganda the Anti-Communist parties scored a convincing victory. President de Gasperi and his coalition Government maintain a straight course of Italian policy against dictatorship and terrorism.
Historical St. Paul's Cathedral at Frankfurt o/Main was the scene of the centenary in remembrance of the first German National Convention. For a whole week the city had festivals and meetings. Highlight was the address of poet Fritz von Unruh who returned from emigration and who was given the Goethe Prize of 1948. The Frankfurt celebrations were symbolic for the peaceful and peaceloving re-orientation of Germany.
War in the Holy Land. When the British Mandate ended, British Troops left Palestine. Dr. Waizmann became State President of the independent Jewish State of Israel. The opposition, King Abdullah of Transjordania, whose troops together with other Arab and Aegypt forces invaded Israel. In severe fighting the Jews successfully defended their teritory. The UN appointed Count Bernadotte as Mediator in the Palestine conflict. While trying to restore peace to Palestine Count Bernadotte was apassinated.
The currency reform was an event of tremendous importance. The old money is exchanged - payment of the Head Quota leads into the new D-Mark era. The first results: there are many things one can buy now, the shop windows are filled. There are fruit and vegetables, which seem to have ripened overnight. As money has regained its value, the first step towards a sound economic basis in the 3 Western Zones has been made.
As a result of the money reform the Soviets blockaded Berlin. They cut all roads and waterways into the city. More than 2 million people have to go through all hardships of a blockade. The Berlin crisis begins. The answer of the Western Powers was the air-lift, the largest aerial action ever undertaken. And the Berlin population does not waver. Demonstrations are held in which the people demand freedom and independence. The air-bridge is improved. About 100.000 flights have been made up to the end of the year.
Marshall Tito, State-Chief of Jugoslavia, is accused by Moscow to have strayed from the general line of Soviet-Policy. This was the first break in the Red Block behind the Iron Curtain.
Olympic Games in London. Alter the festive opening by King George 58 nations take part in the contests, lasting two weeks. The outstanding athlete of the Games is: Dutch Mrs. Blankers-Koen, who won 4 gold medals. The Argentine Cabrera won the Marathon race. The total score was won by America, second was Sweden, third Hungary.
Bonn was the scene of the meeting of the Parliamentary Council. 65 representatives of the German lands Work out the preliminary treaty which will be the backbone of the future German constitution.
700th anniversary of Cologne Cathedral. This ancient building was the scene of a great festival after its repair. The whole Christian world had sent its representatives. Cardinal Legate Clemente Micara, ambassador of the Pope, is in the procession.
Increased exports mark the economic improvement of Germany. "Made in Germany" again becomes a hallmark of quality.
Pencils, steel, fur etc, are again exported. Export gains precious foreign currency for which raw materials and food stuffs can be bought - a fruitful circle of goods and money.
There were new aeronautic records last year. This British jet-propelled plane scored a speed of more than 1.000 kilometers P.H.
Coal is the key to reconstruction. The increase of coal output is assisted by employing more miners and giving them a higher standard of living. The occupational forces take a strong interest in these efforts. General Clay and General Robertson Visited several mines and steel works. Since autumn the daily output of Ruhr coal has steadily passed the 300,000 tons-mark.
A new reign in Holland. Queen Wilhelmina abdicated. The investiture of her daughter Juliana took place at the New Church of Amsterdam.
The UN met at Paris. Topical international problems were dealt with in numerous sessions. Here, too, the Sowjet-Russia tried to obstruct vital decisions. This is Sowjet-Representative Wischinsky and the Ucraine delegate voting against a suggestion to end the Berlin crisis. It was the 28th "No" of Soviet Russia in 3 years of the UN.
The new money brought the switch from empty stores to full shops. People bought and the prices went up. Protest demonstrations were held by the working population. One of first official measures against the high prices and for the support of the new currency was the "Jedermann" programm which supplies everybody with cheap goods.
London was the meeting place of the leading states-men of the British Commonwealth, representatives of 500 million people. Possibilities and plans for economical co-operation and joint reconstruction were discussed.
A great musician died: Franz Lehar.
Presidential elections in America. The 2 Candidates are (for the Democrats) President Truman and (for the Republicans) the Governer of the State of New York, Thomas E. Dewey, who was the favourite. After a great electorial contest President Truman won the election and remains president of the U.S.A. for 4 more years - this time elected by the people.
In China the government of Tschiang-Kai-Schek is in dire stress. Tschiang-Kai Schecks armies have lost in the northern country considerable territory to the Communist armies. The war in China moves towards its decision.
The hardships of winter menace Berlin: electric cuts, traffic reduction, shortage of fuel and other results of the Soviet Blockade. But the Berliners stayed steady and participated in the elections for the municipal parliament. The Soviets banned the elections in the East Sector. More than 86% participated - an overwhelming demonstration of the Berliners desire for freedom.
A son for Princess Elizabeth. The bells of Westminster Abbey rang, the guns of the Tower fired a salute. Many babies born on the same day, were called Philipp or Elizabeth in honour of the occasion. This is one of them ... a pleasant ending of the year 1948.
Happy New Year 1949
Persons in the Film
Bourbon Parma von, Anna ; Gaspery de, Alcide ; Michael von Rumänien
Geneva ; Italy ; Switzerland
Sachindex Wochenschauen ; Higher education ; Fireworks ; Engagement ; aftermath of war
Translated by Microsoft Translator