Year in review 1963 awakening to new limits political movements 1963 (content see narration) material see folder for year in review
Annual review 1963 the initiative of John F. Kennedy of the change of Chancellor in Germany the break between Moscow UN Beijing the overthrow of the diem regime in Viet Nam the own way of Charles de Gaulle's evolution in the spiritual world of the Status Quo at the Berlin wall material see folder for year recaps
Content of the week 726 wrote the year of 1960, when hopes were sung during the American election campaign, which portrayed a young Democratic Senator from Massachusetts. He convinced the Congress, which should choose him as a candidate by the enthusiasm, he knew how to wake and the confidence, which transferred to John F. Kennedy on his followers. Jubilation "and we shall win!" He won the election and became President of the United States. And in his inaugural address some of the cool and calculating dynamic was already noticeable, rebelled with the America's previously youngest President against the rigid fronts of world politics. "... with any heartship support any friend uphold any foe to assure the surevival and success of liberty." Kennedy entered the White House sealed the decision of the United States to power behind an idea. -To move - get on the move - has been the leitmotif. "I believe we can get this country moving again." The knowledge prevailed in other political centres of the Earth, that the time for change was right. But first, the year 1963 brought concluded that wave of the movement we now still do not know, on which Bank she will leave us.
The face of German politics assumed other forms as the man Germany owes more than just its today's standing in the world, gave the power out of the hands. "Konrad Adenauer has rendered to the fatherland!" Relaxed and confident Konrad Adenauer served 14 years the principle of perseverance. His will and the force that was in him, characterized the Federal Republic, and the large form of his already historical dimensions adopted compared to the stature of his political opponents. Continuity and perseverance were the two principles of its policy. He crowned his life's work by the reconciliation with France. Adenauer's almost static persistence however became the core of political unrest, as the world obeyed the law of motion. Were misplaced insight, but also doubts about the future of Germany spoke out of his recent holiday interviews: "it became evident here in this so-called holiday the whole concern of our time. What is this anxiety finally - we do not know - what we want is peace, a real peace and not a peace replacement that brings only anxiety and finally again discontent." Under his successor, Ludwig Erhard announced a new style: "I think that it depends on to make credible democracy; to humanize them and to ensure that it is perceived as a natural, human right." Professor Erhard left no doubt that he more alive, more elastic and perhaps also less headstrong would govern as the old Rhöndorf. For the first time in German history a Chancellor called on the intellectuals to leave their sulking, and stroked over the heads of MPs a breath of fresh air when he declared in the Bundestag: "in the Federal Republic, a process underway, which has fundamentally changed the deeds of our economic and social life is unmistakable. We are overgrown prosperity on the best ways to help more and more citizens a more conscious life style and life after overcoming of class struggle."
Eagerly, the world watched the changes between Beijing and Moscow. Behind the bright façade of communist mass gatherings, the ideological position of Nikita Khrushchev in the faltering settled no longer hide. Breaking with Beijing was obvious. The friendly hug between Khrushchev and Mao Tse Tung pictures belong to the past. The confident and ambitious China raised his interpretation of Marxism to the inviolable dogma. Beijing stirred up the hatred of America, called for its own nuclear weapons and fought in vain against the specter of hunger. But also the wheat fields in the Soviet Union did not meet their target. The loss of prestige of Khrushchev reached a dangerous for him, when he stunned the world with his decision to sign the for years debated stop nuclear agreement with the United States and England. The future only will decide whether this politics between the power blocs to new frontiers forward moving. Today there is only a treaty - and the "hot wire", which allows a direct conversation between Washington and Moscow in the event of an emergency. Both had Khrushchev on his behalf. He left in satellite countries as peace father cheering themselves and thus überspielte his ideological defeat in the China conflict. However, those who had overestimated the reconciliation will of Khrushchev's, were soon dashed. Disillusioned with the premature performers of disability of American convoys on the road were after. Across Berlin. And on the anniversary of the Red Army in Moscow, Khrushchev gave prahlerischer and threatened than in the worst days of the cold war. The thought of reducing the nuclear danger was the driving element in John F. Kennedy's Russia policy. Without ulterior motives and of a substantial call opposition he took advantage of every opportunity to test the readiness for reconciliation of the Soviets. He met for detailed talks with Gromyko, and eventually decided on the sale of subsidized American wheat to the Soviet Union. "... this partioular decision with respect to sales to the Soviet Union which is not inconsistent with many smaller transacvions over a long period of time." Shortly afterwards he went a step further. At the United Nations, he suggested the joint conquest of the moon to the Soviets. "Why, therefore, should mens first flight to the moon be a matter of national competition. Why should the United States and the Soviet Union in preparing for such expedition become involved in immense duplication of research construction and expenditure. "The political dynamics, who was devoted to Kennedy, remained in the United States without critical resonance. He moves to almost - he moved up too quickly, it was said among the inhabitants in the southern States, especially as regards the rights of Negroes, who saw him as their strongest support. Changes occurred in South Vietnam. Under Kennedy's administration, the Government believed to be an obstacle in the fight against the Communists, was overthrown by a military junta. The Americans engage then even more than before, and Kennedy's word that the United States be ready to bear any burden, in the fight for freedom was carried out - in another country.
The man, who also, but on his very idiosyncratic style in motion brought world politics, said Charles de Gaulle. "ALORS que nous n'avons ni ni le sousmarine [...]" Lancé le u ni t les [...] TES nucleaires pour les armées." Undeterred, rarely influenced by Moscow or Washington he traveled, to win friends for his conception of a third force. His independence effort documenting de Gaulle by a clear decision: he refused to join the Moscow Treaty, and dressed himself and his nation in the expensive garments of a nuclear night. For the expansion of its "Force de Frappe" he settled it this may belong to the tragic aspects year, that de Gaulle stands as a large, but maybe as a lone man on the European stage, in a role that he can not change, without ceasing to be de Gaulle.
But while operating the secular leaders of the terms and the products of their power, and while the rising missiles more and more away from the earth people's thoughts, significant changes before him were spiritual area. The churches tried to accommodate the altered reality and God suddenly became a topic of the day. The death of Pope John XXIII. was a moment painful yet in a development, which put the pent-up theological thought of centuries in motion associated with his name. But it has only seemed to be a moment of standstill, II took over the Pope Paul VI. Vatican Council as a living legacy. Johannes XXIII. had summoned together this supreme body of the Catholic Church to put the Church in a [...] ow the time. Under his successor changes announced himself to the a few years ago had dared to believe no in sovereign authority, the togetherness of all bishops should be in the future the Pope at the leadership of the world church to the page.
Where whatever the awakening to new frontiers, is to register it in the secular or sacred area was - for us in Germany he ended there, where a Communist symbol has been used in political paralysis. At a time when rich in dynamic motion, Khrushchev and Kennedy were at different times within and beyond the wall, in a city that reveals the implacability of opposites like no other; Berlin 1963. The battle cry of "Proletarian" of all countries unite, inspires the workers and all working people in their just struggle against the capitalist exploiters and the imperialist warmongers." "There are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the kommunists. Let them come to Berlin." "Officer students, non-commissioned officers of the air force, air defense, I welcome and congratulate you on the day of the international worker class;" "Hooray, hooray, hooray!" "And therefore are even a few who say that it's true that kommunism is an evil system, but it permits US to make [...] onomic progress. -Let them come to Berlin! -Let them come to Berlin." "Soldiers, officers and non-commissioned officers of the guards, I welcome and congratulate you on the day of the international working class;" "Hooray, hooray, hooray!" "All free man, wherever they may live, are citizens in Berlin, and therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words; Ich bin ein Berliner!" Applause! "To build on the German Democratic Republic, in which the Socialist future of the people becomes the present. -The rifle over!" "Kennedy - Kennedy - Kennedy - Kennedy - Kennedy!" The enthusiasm that came from Kennedy, ended suddenly in dismay, the momentum, to which he had taken out in silence. Three years after he had thrown them in the middle of the movement Kennedy ceased to be. The questions that were in the faces, when his death became known, range over in the new year. This could be an answer. "In a moving world we are may not solidify, but we have a duty to hold firm, in the pursuit of the objectives of our policy because man also swaying the disposed to the fluctuating time is, which augment the evils and spreading it further and further, but who firmly behart on the senses, which makes the world!"